Fixing Decaying Teeth and Cavities with A Tooth filling

Article By Doctor John
Hume Dentist
81 Pasley St Sunbury VIC 3429
Tel: 0386582149

Tooth filling can also be referred to as dental restoration. It is defined as a process aimed at restoring the function and integrity of the missing dental structure which has been damaged by tooth decay to its normal shape. When giving a filling, the dentist first removes the decayed tooth material using special instruments.
Tooth filling usually involves several steps. Once the dentist discovers a decay, he will numb the gums using a special anesthetic. An air abrasion material or drill will then be used to remove the decayed tooth.
The dentist will then examine the area when removing the decayed tooth to confirm if all the unwanted materials have been removed. The dentist will then clean the cavity left to remove any remaining materials and bacteria that caused the decay. Where a decay has affected a major portion of the tooth, the dentist may recommend cap or even a crown. If the decay has done up to the nerve, it may treated through root canal therapy by removing the damaged tooth or through pulp capping, a process which allows the nerve to remain arrive. After filling, the dentist will polish off the surface.

Different materials may be used for filling. The choice of the filling material will depend on whether the patient is allergic to different filling materials, the extent of repair and the cost. The different materials for tooth filling include:

Porcelain fillings: This restoration material usually stain-resistant and can be matched to tooth color. However, it’s very expensive.

Gold fillings: This material is usually tolerated by the gum tissues and can longer as compared to the other materials hence it’s highly preferred. However, it is very expensive.
Composite resins: This are preferred where the patient’s natural appearance is needed, where its color corresponds to the color of the teeth. The ingredients are usually mixed and placed on into the empty cavity. This filling material may not last for long as it may start wearing off with time In addition, this material may easily become stained from tobacco and coffee.

Amalgam fillings: It is an alloy of silver, tin, copper or mercury. The advantage of this material is it is cheaper and resistant to wear.

However, this material is more noticeable than the other materials, hence not used for front teeth.
Once tooth filling has been completed, patients may experience some problems such as tooth sensitivity, tooth pain and allergies. Tooth sensitivity is usually common among patients, a condition which resolves itself within a short time after the placement. A patient may be sensitive to sweet foods, temperature or even air.

Tooth pain may also occur when chewing food or when the tooth touch. If pain occurs when chewing food, it may be caused by the filling interfering with chewing food. If it occurs, the patient should go back to his/her dentist to have the filling reshaped. Pain which occurs when the tooth touch, the pain may disappear within a short period.
Allergic reactions from tooth filling may be triggered by a metals used in amalgam filling. Patients who suffer such allergic reactions usually have a family history of allergies.

How the LitterMaid Im980 Saved me from maintaining my cats litter box


The Litter Maid Cat Litter Box is a life saver! Oh my goodness, I used to have such a problem with cleaning the litter box every day! I’m older than I used to be, and my back isn’t what it once was, and my cats track litter all over the house because it gets caught in their paws so I felt like I was constantly sweeping, vacuuming, or scooping litter after my kitties.

angry cat about his litter box

I love them, but it was getting to be much too much for me, as busy as I am. Enter the Litter Maid automatic self-cleaning litter box. The carbon filters control the scent so well, I would barely even know the litter box was there if I didn’t stub my toe every time I went to the bathroom. The natural clumping cat litter is made out of corn, so I feel safe using it around my kids and pets, and it doesn’t stick to my cats’ paws so they don’t track litter all over my house: Check out this helpful LitterMaid review here.

The best part is, I don’t have to bend and scoop any more because the litter box does that all for me! As soon as the cats do their business and get out of the litter box, the Litter Maid cat box immediately rakes the litter clean into a disposable, sealed container. The lid snaps on, and I just grab it when its time to take out the trash. When I first heard of a self cleaning litter box I thought, “well that’s a genius idea, but I bet it only works for one cat, two at the most.” But I have four adult cats, and the Litter Maid Im980 handles all their litter just fine.

I change their litter to a fresh bed once a week, and the rest of the time, the cat box does it for me. There’s even a Kitty Kabana Litter Box Cover for the cat who wants a little more privacy and won’t use the litter box in the open, and a rug to sneakily wipe their paws off as they head away from the litter box, making sure my floors stay clean. Or, at least as clean as anyone’s floors stay with three teenagers and a tween in the house! I’m telling you, this invention is genius.

There is one note of caution I would add, and that is to keep your cat’s old litter box for a few days while they acclimate to the sound the Litter Maid Cat Litter Box makes, at first it scared them at first, but they’re adventurous and within a few days they didn’t want anything to do with the old nasty one, they wanted the one that gets cleaned every time they use it! My daughter has been begging for a kitten of her very own, and I keep saying no because I know who will be stuck with litter box clean up duty, (me, that’s who), but I just saw that Litter Maid has an even newer, bigger model out– the Litter Maid Elite Mega.

Perhaps my daughter will get that kitten for her birthday after all I mean, now it’s Litter Maid on clean up duty, not me. Now if only there were an automatic homework maid or a dishes maid!

Check out the video below to see how the unit performs — next time I will get around to making my own review video


The European Monitoring Centre for Biotechnology was established as the first observational entity boost the biotechnology sector information in Europe.

  The full City Council of Barcelona (image) has held last March 18, 2005 an official statement supporting the creation of the European Observatory of Biotechnology based in Barcelona.Thus, proponents of this private initiative, have decided that this project finally has its headquarters in the city of Barcelona.

 Birth of a new entity within the collaboration between Catalonia and Flanders, an initiative that aims to become the focal point of information biotechnology in Europe.

 The European Monitoring Centre for Biotechnology, begins thus a stage full of illusions, projects and hard work that leads to position itself as a dynamic center of biotechnology activity in Europe and an entity capable of acting as a center of information on everything related biotechnology.

 Europe is the center of numerous bioclusters and initiatives that make biotechnology is currently one of the centers of interest of companies, institutions and organizations of a different nature, it is the beginning of a way to go still very early but it will be full of discoveries. Human health, animal, plant, environmental biotechnology .. are just some of the preambles of how biotechnology can promote different groups.

   18.03.2005 Official statement


Please feel free to contact the EOB via any of the channels available to you. E-mail, however, is the easiest means of contact, as the EOB is very reliable in responding to all requests, questions, proposals etc.

By phone:

(+0034) 93.324.82.03 – 93.324.82.12 – 93.324.82.13

(+0034) 657.10.42.23 – (+0034) 637.33.00.93

Communication Area

The European Observatory of Biotechnology works intensively within the field of communications, promoting numerous different business and research projects relating to the distribution of biotechnology in the broadest sense.

 At the same time, the communication area serves as a motivational tool for many of the EOB’s different projects. The observatory plans to develop different portals designated to specific branches and specialisations within the vast field of biotechnology, such as agro-biotechnology, animal and plant health biotechnology, human health biotechnology, and others.

These projects allow the EOB to preserve its utility as an observatory and consolidate itself as a benchmark centre for biotechnology information in Europe. 

The EOB also provides services for companies in the sector, organising activities such as:

Press conferences


Conventions and technical symposiums

Presence in the mass media

On the whole, we might say that one of the tasks of the observatory is to provide communication for traditionally highly scientific companies and institutions that lack development in aspects such as communications.

Learning & Education

The European Observatory of Biotechnology offers its entire portfolio of know-how and courses in order to train a sector that is in constant development and retraining.

Moreover, the EOB strives to offer innovative training to a highly scientific sector that is also in great need of new formative know-how, strategies and information.

The EOB is not limited to technical training, but rather also offers other aspects such as creativity, innovation and information in an emerging, immensely broad-scope sector.

The EOB moreover promotes numerous joint and bilateral projects with other companies and institutions that are active in biotechnological training. The aim? To foster projects and training courses that further increase the prestige of the observatory as a training institution.


For biopharma and biotechnology professionals


For people who wish to adapt their spoken English skills to the professional environment of the biotechnology field.

What are the biobservers?

The Biobservers are people who don’t work in the administrative center of the organization but rather act as collaborators contributing information and knowledge of the sector.

They are people with a scientific, industrial or IT background. They come from many different branches of Biotechnology that collaborate with the EOB. They contribute data and different information linked to their respective working fields. They are part of the EOB’s knowledge network and represent one of the foundations and reasons for supporting the organization’s networks. Presently, the EOB has various networks of biobservers at its disposal in different European countries and is gradually extending this knowledge network through information transmission. The biobservers converse and establish Internet links with each other once a month. Then, they exchange observed information concerning different companies and biotechnological organizations. Biotechnology professionals  benefit from the information of the sector and at the same time, the OEB gathers the information that is then processed and classified. This whole process is the virtual biobservatorium.

Biointelligence and biostrategy

Yet another prominent area of the EOB is devoted to the theoretical and practical application of the information accumulated in its research network and sector know-how. The bio-intelligence area plans out strategies, methods and channels based on the information obtained by its information network, its bio-observatorium and its contacts with bioservers.

The EOB offers consultancy to companies and institutions that wish to become familiar with the sector in certain thematic scopes, countries and regions. It is also capable of offering strategic outlooks and assessments of the progress or positioning of companies, sub-sectors, and the like.

The EOB moreover works to help companies position themselves in different sectors and competitive areas, plotting out information operations and calculating risks and vulnerabilities. We must not forget that the biotechnology market is a venue for the action and interaction of information, a vital element for the development of any field professional or company.

The EOB also analyses the movements within the sector and the progress of certain companies and new drugs, locating opinion leaders and positioning companies in the biotech communication market. On the whole, this has come to be known as the bio-intelligence of the sector’s organizations.

The intermediary area

The EOB fosters a number of different intermediary services. In other words, the observatory stimulates exchange among institutions that wish to contact one another for different reasons relating to the sector. In providing this service, the EOB relies on its extensive network of contacts, information, bioservers and the know-how acquired from participation in conferences, conventions, symposiums, and similar events.

 The EOB has the mechanisms to bring together the interests of different countries, areas, institutions, and companies that wish to work together on common, shared, bilateral or multilateral projects, whether in the scientific or any other discipline, including the documentary, educational, institutional and similar fields.

 At the same time, the EOB also aims to strengthen the role of bioregions throughout Europe, to promote sectors, companies and certain specialties within the field of biotechnology, to attract investments, generate technological and research-related platforms, and more.

What are the EOB’s documentation services?

Biotechnological documentation is a determining factor within the sector, as hundreds of reports are generated every day throughout Europe. Such reports contribute to analysing, classifying and providing information on the complex, multidisciplinary sector of biotechnology.

The EOB transforms part of its know-how into documentation, which usually comes in the form of articles, reports, rankings and other written information. Such information is in turn periodically distributed to the mass media, as well as to the biotech and public institutions that have a need for it.

Once a year the EOB additionally prepares the Annual European Report on Biotechnology, a generic report on the sector that provides an overall assessment of biotechnology in Europe. The aim behind this initiative is to draw up a unified report on the sector, offering a full-scale assessment that not only reaches out to biotech institutions, but also to the general public at large.

At the same time, the observatory also writes other more specific sector reports based on the different countries, regions, biotechnology specialties, etc. that form part of its activity within the area of biotech documentation.